The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care

Mean Differences between the 2 Groups on the Spiritual Needs.

Items Patients (N=102) Family members (N=88) P* Total (N=202)



Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Sub-dimension 1. Relating to God (RG)
29. Remember how God has guided and helped me 3.26 1.19 3.58 1.21 0.072 3.41 1.20
30. Feel that there is a God out there looking after me 3.34 1.20 3.56 1.21 0.224 3.44 1.21
31. Know God’s will 3.27 1.05 3.52 1.11 0.117 3.39 1.09
32. Accept that God is in control of my illness. 3.19 1.23 3.32 1.13 0.446 3.25 1.18
28. Believe that God has healed or will heal me 3.29 1.19 3.52 1.27 0.202 3.40 1.23
36. Pray privately 3.25 1.16 3.75 1.05 0.002 3.48 1.14
27. Get right with God 3.52 1.12 3.76 1.05 0.129 3.63 1.09
37. Read scripture or other materials that nurture my spirit. 3.18 1.18 3.53 1.12 0.035 3.34 1.17
38. Have quiet time to reflect or meditate 3.56 1.08 3.85 0.89 0.041 3.69 1.00
Sub total 3.32 0.96 3.60 0.95 0.044 3.45 0.96
Sub-dimension 2. Loving others (LO)
9. Try to help others 4.03 0.68 3.99 0.72 0.689 4.01 0.70
6. Make the world a better place 3.75 1.08 4.07 0.87 0.030 3.90 0.99
7. Return others’ kindnesses 4.05 0.69 4.25 0.55 0.030 4.14 0.64
13. Be appreciated by others 3.68 0.89 3.72 0.88 0.760 3.69 0.89
8. Protect my family from seeing me suffer 3.78 0.96 3.58 0.99 0.151 3.69 0.98
10. Get right with others (e.g., forgive or be forgiven) 4.16 0.67 4.26 0.73 0.307 4.21 0.70
Sub total 3.91 0.57 3.98 0.55 0.400 3.94 0.56
Sub-dimension 3. Receiving love and spiritual support (RLSS)
33. Receive prayer or a religious ritual (e.g., communion) from a religious leader 3.25 1.18 3.61 1.06 0.025 3.42 1.14
35. Listen to religious programs or music (e.g., on TV or radio) 3.05 1.21 3.33 0.91 0.070 3.18 1.09
34. Attend a spiritual meeting or religious service (e.g., at a church, mosque, or temple) 3.00 1.13 3.34 1.12 0.039 3.16 1.14
11. Become more comfortable about receiving care from other people 3.62 0.90 3.78 0.79 0.182 3.69 0.86
12. Know that others are praying or thinking positive thoughts for me 3.76 0.96 3.97 0.85 0.130 3.86 0.91
14. Be with others I consider to be family 4.05 0.71 4.18 0.77 0.216 4.11 0.74
Sub total 3.45 0.74 3.70 0.69 0.018 3.57 0.72
Sub-dimension 4. Finding meaning (FM)
26. Become aware of positive things that have come with this illness 3.77 0.92 4.11 0.72 0.005 3.93 0.85
24. Try to make life count 3.96 0.86 4.25 0.75 0.015 4.09 0.82
23. Get beyond asking “why me (us)?” 3.49 0.91 3.56 0.95 0.622 3.52 0.92
25. Sense that there is a reason for my being alive now 3.89 0.94 4.17 0.65 0.018 4.02 0.83
22. Realize that there are other people who are worse off than me 3.61 0.88 3.68 0.86 0.561 3.64 0.87
Sub total 3.75 0.66 3.95 0.55 0.020 3.84 0.62
Sub-dimension 5. Maintaining positive perspective (MPP)
1. Keep a positive outlook 4.08 0.86 4.43 0.74 0.003 4.24 0.83
2. Have hope that I will get well 3.95 0.94 4.40 0.77 <0.001 4.16 0.89
5. Have faith within myself 3.95 0.99 4.28 0.80 0.012 4.11 0.92
3. Count my blessings 3.71 0.97 4.16 0.83 0.001 3.92 0.93
4. Tell others about the good things in my life 3.46 0.98 3.66 0.99 0.169 3.55 0.99
Sub total 3.83 0.71 4.19 0.59 <0.001 3.99 0.68
Sub-dimension 6. Preparing for Death (PD)
40. Balance thought about dying with hoping for health 3.61 1.01 3.84 0.91 0.098 3.72 0.97
41. Know that there will be a purpose for my death, whenever it happens 3.40 1.07 3.73 1.01 0.034 3.55 1.06
39. Make sure my personal business is in order 3.66 0.95 4.01 0.72 0.004 3.82 0.87
42. Think about what happens after death in the “afterlife” 3.08 1.17 3.11 1.01 0.826 3.09 1.10
Sub total 3.44 0.87 3.67 0.75 0.048 3.55 0.82
Sub-dimension 7. Reevaluating Beliefs and Life (RBL)
16. Think about whether my beliefs about God are correct 3.28 1.18 3.64 1.11 0.036 3.45 1.16
15. Review what I believe 3.83 0.81 4.02 0.88 0.125 3.92 0.85
20. Reevaluate my life 3.69 0.89 3.89 0.82 0.111 3.78 0.86
18. Think about what it means to live spiritually (e.g., to have faith, to forgive) 3.34 1.05 3.57 1.00 0.134 3.45 1.03
Sub total 3.54 0.72 3.78 0.74 0.024 3.65 0.74
Sub-dimension 8. Asking “why?” (AW)
19. Think about the unfairness of what has been happening 3.36 0.94 3.51 0.88 0.266 3.43 0.92
17. Ask “why?” questions (e.g., Why me? Or why not me? Or why did I deserve this?) 3.23 0.94 3.45 0.95 0.097 3.33 0.95
21. Find helpful explanations for why this illness happened to me 3.76 0.98 3.80 0.85 0.818 3.78 0.92
Sub total 3.45 0.70 3.59 0.69 0.180 3.51 0.70
Total 3.58 0.62 3.80 0.59 0.011 3.68 0.62

t-test.

Korean J Hosp Palliat Care 2020;23:27~38 https://doi.org/10.14475/kjhpc.2020.23.1.27
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